The main objectives of this Study is of three Patterns of Dhutaṅga in Thai Societies :- (1) to study the concepts and principles of Thai Buddhist’s Dhutaṅga, (2) to study the concepts of senior monks Dhutaṅga in Thai societies, and (3) to present the patterns of Dhutaṅga in Thai societies. The method of study in this thesis is a documentary one study by gathering the data from Tipitaka, the electronic media, the related documents, writings, and books. including, the interviewing and observation of the pilgrimage to be analyzed and synthesized for obtaining the content in accordance with the thesis’s order.
Form the research, it is found that in the ideas and the principles of the ascetic practices in Buddhism, the word “ascetic practices” means the pilgrimage that we use to abandon the desires. This principle is of 13 ascetic practices, called the 13 pilgrimages. The people can choose to practice freely and need not to practise all kinds of the pilgrimags, because the practicice depends on the charisma, the tolerance, and the effort, such as, the practising in the Forest-dwelling (staying in the forest), the Cemetery dwelling (staying in the cemetery), because the pilgrimage can help the executor to stay with peace to do Dhamma practice for abandoning the desires in very deep mind of the individual person.
Nowadays, the ascetic practice has spread to many temples. The monks practise the ways of the ascetic practices till now. The Buddhist monks in Thailand who practise strictly are Man Puritutto, Dul Atulo, Bua Yañāṇampanno and Lee Thammatharo, ect,. They regularly do the ascetic practices strictly, their practicing the pilgrimage is going against to the original way of the practice, because the disciples of Lord Buddha, such as, Mahakassapa, Uppasenathera, and other many famous monks practised according to the way of Lord Buddha. Many monks got achievement from the practicing. The pilgrimage practising gives the advantage to the practise very much. The practise can develop themselves both the mind and perception at intellect that make the people look respectable and faithful for other people.
The practice of thudong pilgrimage in Thai society today has follows the 13 austerities. In the following 3 wats the monks do not practice every austerity such as : Ajahn Chah practices 6 thudong austerities : (1) Triple-robe-wearer's Practice (tecivarik'anga) (2) Alms-food-eater's Practice (pindapatik'anga) (3) House-to-house-seeker's Practice (sapadanik'anga) (4) One-sessioner's practice (ekasanik'anga) (5) Bowl-food-eater's Practice (pattapindik'anga) (6) Later-food-refuser's Practice (khalu-paccha-bhattik'anga), Ajahn Charan Anongano practices 6 thudong austerities (1) Alms-food-eater's Practice (pindapatik'anga) (2) House-to-house-seeker's Practice (sapadanik'anga) (3) One-sessioner's practice (ekasanik'anga) (4) Bowl-food-eater's Practice (pattapindik'anga) (5) Later-food-refuser's Practice (khalu-paccha-bhattik'anga) (6) Any-bed-user's Practice (yatha-santhatik'anga), Dhammakaya practices 2 thudong austerities : (1) Any-bed-user's Practice (yatha-santhatik'anga) (2) One-sessioner's practice (ekasanik'anga). The thudong austerities that have been practiced by these 3 ways can be used as a guideline and taught to new monks and novices according to their capacities and wishes.