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ѡɳФ͹ԧѪ㹤Ѫԡ
Some Philosophic Teachings in Majjhima Nikaya


ջѵ ྪèҡûԮ çҨŧóҪԷ ا෾ҹ 2542 ˹ 129 - 144


"Ѫԡ" Ǵ͹ԧȹҢͧкʴ Ǵ˹觢ͧصѹԮ кûԮͧҷ
Ѫԡ Ǵ͹ԡӴѺ Ǻٵͤ͹ԧȹ դǻҹҧ 鹡 "զԡ" ǡ "ѧصԡ" ըӹǹ ٵ ѳʡ (Ǵ ) ( , ) ¡ Ѫԡ Żѳʡ ( ѪԡǴ èؾٵ ٵ) ¡ Ѫԡ Ѫѳʡ ( Ѫԡ Ǵ ҧ èؾٵ ٵ) ¡ Ѫԡ ػԻѳʡ ( Ѫԡ èؾٵ ٵ)
͡ҡ "ѳʡ" (Ǵ ) ѧ觫¢ŧä աѧ
.Żѳʡ (ӴѺûԮ ) ä ٵ ѧ
.Żä( ٵ)
.˹ҷä( ٵ)
.ͻä( ٵ)
.ä( ٵ)
.ä( ٵ)
.Ѫѳʡ (ӴѺûԮ ) ä ٵ ѧ
.˻ä( ٵ)
.ԡä( ٵ)
.ԾҪä( ٵ)
.Ҫä( ٵ)
.ä( ٵ)
.ػԻѳʡ (ӴѺûԮ ) ä ٵ ѧ
.Ƿä( ٵ)
.͹ػä( ٵ)
.حä( ٵ)
.ѧä( ٵ)
.µä( ٵ)
Ѵǹ͡繻ѳʡ 觻ѳʡ͡ä ͧѪԡ ͹ҧҾ Ѵǹ ŧ ǹͧ͢ä Ҩҡͧ͢ٵӤѭ Шä Ҩҡͤǹ˭ͧä ͧͧԡ ͧͧ繵 Ѫԡ 繤͹ (Early Buddhism) Ѻզԡ ѧصԡ ѧصùԡ кҧ ͧطԡ ռ֡ººѺѸҤͧʵҷ ժ ٵŧѹԹ ֧ͧʹ֡ҡѹ´

͡˹ѡɳоطʹоطѪ
ѭͧ "طʹ" "طѪ" ͹ ࢵᴹѧѴਹ ҧҹ͡ ͹ѡͧѹ Ѩ 㹾Фؤá 㹾ʹؤ 繾طѪ ֧оطʹ繾طѪ仴㹤ǡѹ ҹҧҹ طԡ ѡ׹ѹ "طʹ ʹ Ѫ" ֧ҧ鹾ǡҷ駤Ҩ йԵѡ֡Ҿоطʹ ѧ֡ԪҾطѪҡѹ訹Ѩغѹ ˹ѧǡѺطѪ ռ¹о͡ Theravada Philosophy, The Central Philosophy of Buddhism ÷ӹͧ
ҾҤԴ ѹҨҧ繾طʹФ繾طѪ ѧ
.͹ؤá;оطͧѧçЪ è㹤鹵 վûԮ ѭԡ (ԡ· ¡鹺ҧ Էä) Ѵ繾طʹ ;оطҷçʴ çʴ¾Ѿѭصҳ ѧ觡õ 繡秤ԧ (Speculation) 駼ʴмѺѧҶ֧ԧ»ʺóç (Direct Experience) ҴٺӤԧ͹ѡɳлѪҷ
˵ع ֧պԭи͹ "ͧ (ҷ-ҳ) 㹷ҧ (ଡҳ) Ч㹷ش (ҹҳ) ö (ҵڶ) 駵ѡ (ʾ­ڪ) ط Ժóԧ (ŻԻسڳ طڸ) ҴҴͧеͧաա ҡ Թ ͧѴ͹ Ѵúҧ͡ºҧ աá׹ѹ оطͧʸʹ բҴ ͧ ҡԹ
˵ع ;оطͧçԴ͡ԡʧŶʧ 㹸Թ ͹ʴ稴ѺѹԹԾҹ ֧ԡٻ»ҡŶ ҹط͹ت
͹ѡɳй 㹪ǧ蹹 觡Ҷ֧Ѩд¡ûԺѵ ͡ѹ· ҷҧԸա÷ҧѯҹ ԸաäԴ (Thinking) 秤ԧ (Speculation) С˵ؼ (Logic) ҨѡɳТͧоطʹ" 繤͹Ẻطʹ طѪ
.طѪ Դ鹵͹ ҾҢʹʹѧ :-
طѪԴ ԴվöҨ Դõդ ͸Ժ¤͹ͧоطͧ ҾҶ ŧҹͧǡá 蹵 ҷѨҪ ¡͸Ժ¤͹ դ͹ պص оطҨ 繼شС ͡ԴطѪҢ
չ͡Ƕ֧ "طʹẺҷ" "طѪҷ" 礧ѡɳᵡҧѹ͡ Ҿ "طʹẺҷ" طʹẺش ͹ѡش С繹ԡǷѡҷٻẺ (Form) ͹ վûԮ ҧ͹ҧó ִԢͧ ͧ 㹤Ƿӻѧ¹ աö͹ԡҺ硹 зҷҧ ˹ ԶժԵǻԺѵҨء͹ҡѺ¹ͧ ͹ҹ š
Ѻҹʧ ͷѧٻẺФ͹ط §شѺ駾ط §ѺҾ㹾ФûԮ
طѪҷ Ѳҡ˹ҡ͹͹ѧ¹ 駷 (ѧ¹) ÷ҹպصõ ¹졶ѵآʴش׹ͧҷ СҺ»ҷͼԴἡ ˵͹ͧҷ׹蹤Ҩ֧Ѩغѹ ͹ҧ Ѵ觾иԹ͡ Ǵ ;ûԮ վԹ ٵ оԸǤҷ蹪Ѵ觢 ;оطʹ 仵 ѧ ͹ͧԸ͹Ѻʹ֡оѲҡ Դطä Ըǵ ԸѵѧТ ҾطѪҷԭ˹Ҷ֧ششʹ
բѧࡵ Ѫ ǤԴҧҷоѲҡóش Ҩͧҷդ-͸Ժ¤͹Ẻѡࡳ ;ٴ ¹ 㨢ͧͧ ѡࡳѧǹҨ - 鹵͹ ¡ ѡࡳõդͧҷ礧 մѧ
.ִͧѡ㹾кվûԮ Ӥѭ Ҥ͹ ջҡѴਹ㹾ûԮ ִͧ͵ (ص).Ңͤ ǤԴ ѴਹûԮ ͧö ա ͹خա ҷҹҧ (صҹ)
.ҤдѺö ա ͹خա ա͸Ժ ͸Ժ ѧ Ѵਹ ͧ仴 ǤԴ繢ͧҨзҹ (ࡨҨ) 觾ٴ ͸Ժ㹼ŧҹͧҹ طä ͧоطҨ ҹͧҹط ҹͧиԮ (ص) 繵 (Ҩ)
.ͤ͸Ժ㹼ŧҹͧҨзҹѧ辺 ;ѧѴਹ Ҩ֧繢ͧŧ (ѵ)
駹 դ ͸Ժ¤еͧਵҴ աŨԵԴ ѡҤطͧиԹ 觻ª͡Ҫǹ мդ鹵ͧ֡¹ФûԮ ö ա ͹خա мŧҹǢͧҡͤ ֡¹ Էդ ͵駵繼Ǫҭ Դеդ оٴҧá ӹ֧֧ѡࡳ ԭҧʵԻѭ 蹤ͧʹ Ÿէͧѧ

͹ԧѪѪԡ
蹴¤ "Ѫ" 繨ԧ ҡѧٴ֧͹ͧоط ͹ҧ价ҧ˵ؼ ͧͧդ ͸Ժ¤ Դ㨪Ѵਹ觢
觡ҹ ͧդӡѴ ʵԻѭ ҾҨ֧բͨӡѴ¹ͧ - ѧ :-
.ͧͧ ͹ С֡
Ťѷٻٵ (ӴѺ Ѫԡ Żѳʡ) ٴ֧ "" "" ʹҡ 蹾ٴ
"ٻ ԡڢ Եڶóڶ ˳ڶ"
ԡط ҵҤʴѹº¾ǧ Ѵ͡ҡء ִ (.. //)
ͤ͹㹾ûԮ 駡ԹСԹҡ ʴ繶֧ѵػʧͧоط çҾ طش ҡͧٻẺ ִǵʶҺѹ Ѩ
л԰ҧ ҧվطԧçѹ "֧зѾѡ ֧ѡҪԵ ֧֡õͧз駷Ѿ ЪԵͧ ֧й鹡äӹ֧֧ѧ 黯ԺѵҤèªҡиµç ж֧繷 Ҿи繴ѧҹ˹ âͦʧù觤ʹ йԾҹ оطͧٵǡѹ
"ؾ ԡڢ ͵ ءڢ ڭ ءڢ ø"
ԡط 駡š͹ 㹡ŻѨغѹ ҵҤʴء ФѺءҹ (.. / / )
ѧ "" º¾ǧ ˹й ͤ͹Ҵͧء ФѺء ͧ觴ǹ 繧ҹ੾˹ Ҩеͧ觢ǹ Ҫѡ״ҴѴѹСѹ ͹ɼͧ١ҺҾ ǭҵԵèо Ͷ͹١͡ պѡ ҡеͧ Һ͹ԧ ó ⤵ҧ ٧ ҧ е (.. / /)
͹¢ͧٵù ֧ʴ֧Ըա֡Ҿлѵ
.¹ѵ͹Ѻپ (Ťѷٻһѵ) ¹ִ蹶 ѵҵǵ
.¹ѵŵ ʹѺء (ó-ѵ)
.м¹ѵʧҪ (ѳҤԡѵ)
.ͧѭҷçҡó
اٵ (Ѫԡ Ѫѳʡ //) ͧԡتاºص ŶѭԻѪ (Metaphysic) ѺмվҤ ӹǹ ¡ѾͧФط "Ѿҡ-ѭ" ѭҷçҡó ͺͧ ѭҴѧҧúҧ оط֧ͧͺ
ѭҴѧմѧ
Ѿҡѭ С
.š§ ? ( )
.š§ ? ( )
.šշش ? (͹ڵ )
.šշش ? (͹ڵ )
.СѺѹǡѹ ? ( )
.СѺ繤ҧ ? (ͭ ͭ )
.Ҥѧҡ ? (˵ Ҥ ó)
.Ҥѧҡ ( ˵ Ҥ ó)
.ҤѧҡǷ ? (˵ ˵ Ҥ ó)
.Ҥѧҡ ? ( ˵ ˵ Ҥ ó)
ǡѺѾҡѭҹ բͷѧࡵ ͧš (Soul) Ҥ (㹷¶֧оط ¶֧ ѵ ѵ = Soul) áѹ ҧ ǡѺ (ҧ body) 繤ҧѹ š ѵ ǵ § § ѹᵡ ѧѧ ٭
繻ѭҴҹԻѪ (Metaphysic) 褹Թʹ § ͧҤԧѹѡ
ٻẺͧҧѭ ੾ ͷ· (Yes) (No) մ մ (Either Yes or No) ա ա (Neither Yes nor No) 繡ûʸ͹ʸ Ѻ Ѻ 㹾ǡѹ ͤ 繡¤ӪԴ ҡ㹤оطʹؤá (Early Buddhist Texts) ҹ ҹҨҤêع ͵ѷԻѪٹҷ ԡ Ѳҹ騹ԴԸա÷ҧҷշ¡ Ը (Dialectic) йաù㹻Ѫહ ͧҷҷ (ѻѧչ)ʹԸա͸Ժ "ѹ" ͧ»ѪԹٴ
оطͧçҡóѭҹ ͺ ¢ͤ㹾ٵôѧ ѹͧԯ еͺͺ Դ еͺ Ҩ˵աûоĵԾ е ѧóշɶ١ԧ١ҺҾ ͹١͡ ҨзҺ´ǡѺԧ ѹ ¸ ١ ¡͹
Ǿоطͧاºصè ѭҹ "Ѿҡ-ѭ" ͻѭҷçͺ (ͺ繡õͺ ٻѭҾҡó 㹨ءԺҵ ѧصùԡ (ͧ.ءڡ. //) ջª ǡѺûоĵԾ ͤ˹¤¡˹Ѵ Ѻ ʧ йԾҹ (.. // )
Ҩѹɰҹ Ҩ˵ؼ 㹡ͺѭҹͧоطѧ
.اºصõ駻ѭѡɳкպѧѺ ͹ͺ׹ѹҹ㴴ҹ˹ ͺѺ (Yes) ͻʸ (No) оطͧ줧çԨó õͺѺ ͻʸ Ҩѹ·ͧҹ ҵͺѺ 繡׹ѹ ѷ "ʵԯ" ִ觷§͹ ҧµǡҵѹ׹§¹ŧ ҵͺʸ ҽѡ¡Ѻǡ "ب੷ԯ" þ觢Ҵ٭ ѧҡҧᵡоطʹѪҷ ǤԴ Ѻ ҧ˵ռ 价˵ػѨ 繵ǡ˹仢ͧԴ Ѻ ѧѯ ˵ػѨѧ Դѧ ˵ػѨ ѺԴա
.ͧͧԯ Դ ҧҧԴ ͧͧŵͧ ˹ͧŹ ˹觵 繴ǧǾ Դ ѷԤͶ ִҡ繡ִẺѧ (µԨکҷԯ) ׹ѹҧ鹨繵ѯ (ǯگҳ)оطͧ줧çҺѸ¢ͧاºص դ§价ҧ Ҿٴ͸Ժҡ仡Ҩ繡õͤ Ǥ״ ˹˹ · ѧҹ Сͤ駫ҹ Դª ѧоطͧ㹾ٵ
ͧšշش շش 繢˹ͨԹ ( () šԹ () ҹ () Իҡ () ط ) 蹤蹤Դ ¤ҾоطͧçҺ ͵ͺ ооطվѾѭصҳ բͺࢵ觤ҧ 觷оطͧ Һ º͹㹻 ͹ ͹㹡 ӡѴͺࢵͧѨ ͧء Ѻءҹ
.ͧ "ԭҳ"
ҵѳѧٵ (.. //) Ƕ֧ԡҵ ѯص Դ繼Դعç
" ǵ Ե Ҫҹ ¶ Է ԭҳ ʹڸǵ õ ͹ڭڵ."
"ҾǶ֧иȹҢͧмվҤ ԭҳǧҹ ǧ ͧ"
¤ ԭҳǧ¹ŧ ¹µԴ ͹ʹҷ ͢Ҵ ǡʹ
ԭҳ㹷 ʧҵǵ ѵ, , ҵѹ, Soul Self 㨢ͧҹҵ зҹӵ
" ҳһҹ ҹ Իҡ ෵յ."
"ҹԭ ԭҳǹͧ繼 繼Ѻ Ժҡ觡
ҡͤҧ ҵԡؾ׹ѹ ա 礧ͧռ ( = õ) мѺ觡 ( = ) ǼѺŹ ѡɳ§͹ ¹ŧ ѡͧѷԾԹ ¡ "ҵѹ, ѹ"
ʴ ҹҵӤѷͧһԺѵԻл㹾оطʹ 㨷֡ѡԭҳǧͧ ҡ ѡɳ§ ׹
ѡâͧоطʹ "ԭҳ" Ҩ "ҵ" ( Ԫҹҵ = ҵ ҵԹ鹪 ԭҳ) ѧ "Consciousness" "Soul" "Self" "ѵ" "ҵѹ" "ǵ"
"ԭҳ" ա¹µԴ 繼ѺŢͧ 餧 ¹ŧ ͹ͧ͢ǡ ͺؤŵ ԭҳ任ʹ Դ ǧ Сǧ ѧйҤʹ ͺԹ " ͭ" 繴ǧ 繴ǧ
ԭҳͧطʹҵͧ¹ŧʹ ԭҳ֧ "ѧ" 觷Դ дѺ ˵ػѨ ѡԭҳ ҧ ˵ ѨԴ ҧ
.ѡػҷ
.ٻ һҡ
.ʧҧ§ (š)
.դ㨨д (ԡ)
"ԭҳ" 㹤оطʹؤá ͡ ÷ԭҳ͡任Ժѵԡ ѡԭҳ, ʵԭҳ, ҹԭҳ, ԭҳ, ԭҳ, ԭҳ ͧͧ⹸ҵ ԭҳҵ ѧԭҳ ѲؤԴԸԮö蹵
.ͧ "Ծҹ" "ѹ"
ѹԡٵ (ӴѺ ͧѪԡ Żѳʡ) բͤҴ йԾҹ Ѿš "Ծھҹ" "ԭҳ" ѧ :-
"ԭڭҳ ͹Էʹ ͹ڵ ʾھ "
"Ծҹ о֧ ͹Էʹ ͹ѹ աþ" (.. //)
㹾ٵâͧѪԡ ҧ ׹ѹ "йԾҹ繺آ" (Ծھҹ آ, .. //) 繡ʴ֧ ҵԷԧͧйԾҹ Ǣͧ () ͹ Ѩ»ا դآҧʧгյ آ˹آ㴷 ֧Ҵ " آ" آ آҧǴ.
ͧйԾҹѧش§ ͷҹѨ⤵ Ŷ֧еҡͧѹ ѧҡѺ駡ʢѹѧâѹ ҧ ˹ 㴡ѹ çмվҤͺԧػػ
" Ǩک ب. ͤڤ Ծھ ͤڤ õڶ ک ڢԳ صڵ ҵ.......... ໵ ⤵...."
"Ѩ ռҹ 俷Ѻŧç˹ҷҹȷҧ ȵѹ͡, ȵѹ, , ͷ˹ Ѩ ͷҹ١ѧеͺҧ ?" "⤴ԭ áǴѧ ԧ ˭п׹ءŧ 俹 ᷹ ͧٴ "俴Ѻ"
"Ѩ ͹ѹѹ Ժѭѵ ' Ҥ ' ٻ ٻҵҤ Ѵҡ˧ ͹鹵ҡ 繡Դ繸 ҤǨҡûا觤ٻ ֡駻ҳ Ѵҡ ͹ط á ' Դ ' Դ "
͹ʴ йԾҹͧҷ ʧ آش鹨ҡҤ (Ҥڢ, ʡڢ, ˡڢ) 觹Ծҹ͡ () Ѻѧѧ (ػҷ) () ѺʾѺѺѧ (͹ػҷ) ա͸Ժµ 俴Ѻ ? ˹ ? ˵عҨҧӹѡ ҧѴ ʴҧٻ ʶҹ ¡͵ҧ "ᴹآǴ" ҧ ¡ "µԾҹ" ҧ 繤ǹǢͧӹѡ ͧ͢Ѩਡؤ 繡ʴ͹͡иԹ ͡ûԮ ͹Ẻҷҧ͹

ػ
ʴԴͧФ ͹ѡɳлѪҢͧѪԡ - ͧ ͧ繤ͧ §ʹͤԴ 駹բͨӡѴ駤 ö ѡҹ ҹթѹзҧ֡¹Ф Ƿҧ׺֡ҡѹ´
ФѪԡ¹ 繤ӤѭǴ˹ ͧǵʹ Թ Ѵ ä ŧ ͤ㹾ٵ÷ ٵù кûԮǹ èؤ͹ѡ úǹ շ駤͹ԧԺѵ Ը ʴԧ ѡɳԧѭ - ˵ؼ ͧդ - ͸Ժ¤Ѵਹ觢
֧ͽҡ ҡչѡ֡ҷöҹ, ѹʡĵ, չ, ͧ ͧ֡ҤººѺѸҤͧʵҷ ǹ˭Ҩչ ѹʡĵҧ硹 ͡ҡӤѭ - ͧʹҹ ѧջӤѭͧоطͷҹ֡աҡ
ǹҹѺҡ شкѧѺѺ Ҩ蹡͹ ҹҡҾҧ ֧ǢҾҺҧҡҹա ǨѺ֡Ҩԧ 礧ͧҡ价ʶҺѹ֡Ңͧʧ٧ ԷҨŧóҪԷ¢ͧǡҴ

ԧö
.ٻСͺ The Middle Lengh Discourses of the Buddha, Translated by Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikku Bodhi, Wisdom pub., Boston 1995 P. 19 f.
.١ʴ˵ؼ ôҹԡ· ԡ㴹Ҩ G.C. Pande, Studies in the Origins of Buddhism., Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1983. P 1-17 and 116 f.
Ԫ ѹ ԡت´ (ѺɮպѳԵԵѡͧ .) ֡ººҧ ѸҤ ҨչѺ Ѫԡ ͹ҧ´ ҹ 㹨ӹǹٵâͧѸҤ ٵù ( ä) ҹ֡Ҩӹǹ ٵ ٵ ժͤ¡ѺٵѪԡ, ٵ ͹ѹҡ ա ٵ ᵡҧѹԧ Bhikkhu Thich Minh Cltau, The Chinese Madhaya Agama and The Pali Majjhima Nikaya, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi , 1991 PP. 45 f. дͧоطʹҹԡʵҷͧ ŨԵ, .. Ҩ ا෾ ˹ -
.. ʧ ѹ 㹼ŧҹͧ "ʹʵ" Ҿطʹ㹰ҹ繻Ѫ ǡѺѭҢŰҹͧԵ С Ե Ե˹ ¢ͧԵ٧ش Զշҧѹ١ͧй٧ش鹤 ? ʧ ѹ, ʹʵ, ѲҹԪ, ا෾ ˹ ǹ¶֧ оطʹҹǢͧѺԧ ֧ѡɳ繻ѪҴ
. 繡èṡ մ觤ʹлѪ ҹ . ʧ Է ٴҾԨó ʹҺ觶֧ûԺѵФ ѪҺ觶֧˵ؼ˵ؼ ǹպԴǡѹ ӻʹͧоط Ѫʴ˵ؼ㹤ӻʹ ᨧ֧ѹ㹤ӻʹ , . ʧ Է, طѪ ͧʵҨ ... ʧ Է 㹡þҪҹԧȾ . ... ʧ Է Ѵ ا෾ "طѪ" ˹ 繵
. иԮ (.. ص), óո, ѷ, Զع¹ ˹
. ѷյ Ѹз š
. ջѵ, йԾҹ͹ѵ ùԾطʵѳԵ ա֡ ԷҨŧóҪԷ ˹ - Сͺ

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